Date: Wednesday, December 7th, 2016
Time: 15:00 – 16:30
Location: Leiden, Matthias de Vrieshof 4/12
Speaker: Lisa Bylinina
Title: Grammar of Numerals And The Number Line
Some facts like these, reflecting grammatical splits on the number line, have been noted in linguistic literature but a systematic cross-linguistic picture is still missing. Where on the number line do these splits happen more often? Is ‘1 vs. the rest’ split more common than ‘1, 2, 3 vs. the rest’? Are there splits above 4? Are there interdependencies between splits (say, if a construction has no split after 1, it has no higher splits either)? These kinds of generalisations are relevant for theories of number cognition, suggesting a fundamental cognitive split around 4. I will report some findings of a typological study that aims to answer these questions (part of the ‘Language and Number’ project, a branch of NWO Horizon project ‘Knowledge and Culture’).
Date: Tuesday, November 15th, 2016
Time: 15:30 – 17:00
Location: Utrecht, Trans 10, room 0.19 (A.W. de Grootkamer)
Speaker: Elizabeth Coppock
Title: Outlook-based semantics
This talk presents and advocates an approach to the semantics of opinion statements, including matters of personal taste and moral claims. In this framework, possible worlds are not complemented by judges (as in ‘world-judge relativism’) but rather replaced by outlooks: ‘outlook-based semantics’. Outlooks are refinements of worlds that settle not only matters of fact but also matters of opinion. Several virtues of the framework and advantages over existing implementations of world-judge relativism are demonstrated. First, several authors have argued that world-judge relativism does not actually explain the ‘disagreement’ of ‘faultless disagreement’, while a straightforward explanation suggests itself in outlook-based semantics. Second, outlook- based semantics gives a satisfactory account of subjective attitude verbs which allows for lack of opinionatedness. Third, outlook-based semantics unproblematically explains the connection-building role of aesthetic discourse and the group-relevance of discretionary assertions, while capturing the same effects in world-judge relativism obviates the purpose of the judge parameter. Finally, because the proposed circumstances of evaluation (outlooks) are entirely analogous to possible worlds, the framework is easy to use and extend.